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Exploring CREATE3 - Simplifying Smart Contract Deployment on Ethereum

· One min read
Software Engineer @ Solide

What is Create3

With the advancement of multichain development, CREATE3 emerges as a transformative and cheap alternative to the deployment of smart contracts. With the existing Solidity opcodes such as create and create2, the Create3 is built upon the solidity of create2 to grant developers control over contract deployment. By enabling developers to predetermine contract addresses before deployment, CREATE3 imbues them with a newfound sense of agency. This new approach not only enhances control but also fosters consistency and uniformity across Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) blockchains, allowing for the synchronization of smart contract ecosystems. Whether navigating the Ethereum mainnet, testnets, or private networks, CREATE3 facilitates the harmonious deployment of contracts with identical addresses, thereby heralding a new era of streamlined blockchain development.

Solmate CREATE3

For a more technical perspective, let's dive into Solmate's CREATE3 library, which is designed for deploying smart contracts to deterministic addresses without necessitating an initcode factor. The CREATE3 deploy method operates by leveraging create2 initially to deploy a CREATE factory, with its nonce set to 1 which then is used to deploy the desired derived contract.

Another important part is the Proxy Bytecode.

bytes internal constant PROXY_BYTECODE = hex"67_36_3d_3d_37_36_3d_34_f0_3d_52_60_08_60_18_f3";

The proxy bytecode essentially acts as an intermediary contract that executes the create opcode within its context. By deploying this proxy contract with a unique salt value and having it call "create" with its current nonce (starting at 1 upon first use), the contract bytecode itself becomes independent of the address derivation process. This means that the address of the deployed contract is determined solely by the creator's address, the salt value, and the hash of the proxy bytecode, without being influenced by the specific bytecode of the contract being deployed. This is what makes the contracts deterministic and predictable in their deployments, and how developers can ensure resulting contract addresses deployed on other networks are consistent.

Then we deploy this proxy contract as a new contract using the create2 opcode. The create2 opcode will take in the ether value which is defined as 0, the bytecode of the proxy contract and offset by 32 bytes to skip the first 32 bytes which represent the length of the bytecode, then the bytecode loaded from memory and the salt used for deterministic address derivation.

deployed = getDeployed(salt);
(bool success, ) ={value: value}(creationCode);

Following that the getDeployed function is called to retrieve the address of the deployed contract based on the provided salt value. Subsequently, the proxy contract is invoked with the creationCode to initialize the deployed contract.

There are also two required checks,

require(proxy != address(0), "DEPLOYMENT_FAILED");
require(success && deployed.code.length != 0, "INITIALIZATION_FAILED");
  • The first statement ensures that the deployment was successful by checking that the proxy address is not zero.
  • the second statement verifies that the initialization was successful and that the deployed contract's bytecode is not empty.

So in general the steps to deploying a smart contract using create3 is,

  • creating a Factory contract (Deployer.sol)
  • calls create3.deploy
    • calls create2 to create a proxy contract
    • the proxy contract will be called
    • create from the proxy contract to create the contract

Looking at the Deployer Example contract

The Deployer.sol contract is essentially a factory contract that deploys the contract bytecode to a deterministic address. The contract has a deploy method that takes in the salt value and can take the bytecode of the contract to be deployed. In a more generic sense, you can pass any bytecode in so the deployer() method can be,

function deploy(bytes memory _salt, bytes memory _bytecode, /* more args for constructor */) external {
bytes memory bc = abi.encodePacked(
// args,

CREATE3.deploy(keccak256(_salt), bc, _value);

For this contract, we've encapsulated the deployment of a contract identified as Ownerable.sol. Utilizing the built-in methods, we extract the bytecode of Ownerable and subsequently invoke the create3.deploy function from the Solmate library. This invocation passes along the salt, the extracted bytecode, and any specified ether value as parameters. The create3.deploy function is then responsible for deploying the contract using the provided bytecode.

Deploy using CREATE3

It is important to note the given example using CREATE3 on multichain with the same address, you MUST use a wallet with the same nonce on each network. The best solution is to create an entirely new wallet and send some funds on each chain.

For our demonstration, we'll deploy contracts on the BASE Sepolia and Polygon Mumbai testnet. Begin by compiling and deploying Deployer.sol. This action will advance the nonce of your wallet by one once the transaction is completed. Following this, switch your Metamask to the Mumbai testnet and deploy using the same newly created wallet. The outcome should be consistent across both networks. It's important to note that the Deployer.sol used in both instances is identical, ensuring uniformity in the deployment process.

The examples of deployers on both networks are as follows,

With CREATE3, we gain the flexibility to selectively target a specific address for contract deployment by using a salt. For simplicity, let's use the address 0xfeB362F2148F1303ea6Bf026d32071EA295e25ac as the salt. The Deployer contract includes a function named getDeployer, which, as mentioned, calculates the contract address using the provided salt. Although initially, no contract is deployed at this address, the getDeployer can compute the output Ownerable address for the contract wallet specified with a salt. This approach ensures that the derived address serves as the deployment target for the contract's implementation in bytecode. Importantly, this guarantees that the address will be consistent across different chains, assuming the deploying wallet's nonce remains the same. We should keep the output address in mind, as it'll be the one we can compare across when using deploy.

To deploy with the CREATE3, the Deployer wrapped the deploy from create3 and hence we can pass the the _salt as whatever byte we want say, 0xfeB362F2148F1303ea6Bf026d32071EA295e25ac. After a successful deployment, you can verify the contract on a block explorer by checking out the transaction.

After deploying, we can access the Ownerable.sol (with Solide IDE) contract through the provided URL to interact with its features, such as the getOwner function, which should identify the deploying wallet as the owner. To achieve consistent contract addresses across different chains, repeat this deployment process on an alternative blockchain, such as the Mumbai testnet, employing the identical salt. This method showcases CREATE3's ability to facilitate uniform contract addresses across various chains, underscoring its utility for cross-chain contract deployment. Should there be a need to modify the contract address, altering the salt value or ensuring the nonce differs across networks can accomplish this. Furthermore, if deploying a distinct contract while desiring the same address, leveraging the deploy() function with the original salt allows for this flexibility.

In essence, CREATE3 empowers developers with enhanced control over the generation of smart contract addresses on Ethereum, presenting new opportunities for the development of decentralized applications with increased flexibility and uniformity across diverse networks. However, it's important to acknowledge that deploying contracts via CREATE3 may incur higher costs compared to the create and create2 methods.

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